Home Brew Manual Metal Bottle Crown Capper
Manual Metal Bottle Crown Capper
An excellent addition for anyone capping their own home brew. This sturdy handheld leverage crimping tool lets you cap bottles with ease. Simply pop on the cap and use the lever to press/crimp the bottle closure caps onto the bottle for the perfect sealed home brew.
Designed to fit standard 26mm Crown Caps (closures)
Available on back-order
Manual Metal Bottle Crown Capper
Manual Bottle Capper Tool Crown Capper, Bottle Sealer for Home Brewing Beer Bottle Caps
PUT A CAP ON YOUR HOMEMADE BREWS: Beer Bottle Capper helps you to quickly and easily seal your homemade brews into beer bottles; This unique manual bottle capping machine features two lever handles and a magnet that provides stability when capping bottle after bottle; Compared to the standard bench bottle capper, this crown capper is easier to use thanks to its portability.
FITS A VARIETY OF BOTTLE TYPES: Whether you are capping standard beer bottles, soda bottles, or American-style champagne bottles, this beer capper will help you get the done; Designed to work with crown caps and non-threaded bottles, this capping machine will provide a secure seal on bottles of any height unlike its bench capper competitor; Fits standard 26mm crown caps (Caps not included).
BUILT TO LAST:these handy bottle cappers for home-brewing are designed for durability, strength, and longevity; The 1.4- (3.5 cm) capper centre push head features a small magnet to hold caps in place while installing.
COMFORTABLY: Two red plastic handles are designed for efficiency and comfort to make capping bottles more convenient; The manual capper works by pushing down on the cap while clamping the crown rim inwards to create an airtight seal to the bottle; This clever twin lever design allows you to cap beer bottles with one swift motion while using little effort and time.
EASY TO USE: First, place a crown cap on to the bottle or attach it to the built-in magnet; Center the capper onto the with the handles pulled open at an angle; Push downwards on the handles to begin to tighten the grip of the capper head; This will detach the magnet and push down on the cap while crimping the crown rim; If necessary, rotate the capper and crimp again for a tighter seal.
Whether you are capping standard beer bottles, soda bottles, or American-style champagne bottles,Beer BottleCapper Tool helps you to quickly and easily secure an airtight seal for your home-brewed beverages.
Because Kombucha is incredibly rich in prebiotics (which feed bacteria, sometimes the bad alongside the good), precaution is taken with its inclusion to a low FODMAP diet for SIBO sufferers.
You may be able to drink Kombucha in moderation with SIBO, but the debate is certainly open as to how much you can/should consume of the Elixir of Life.
Our opinion on this matter is to take pre-emptive measures and play it safe, keeping things in moderation. Kombucha may/may not fit into your diet if you’re suffering from SIBO, and you should always consult your physician before transitioning your diet to self-medicating a serious condition.
Read the full article here: SIBO and Kombucha
Learn more about our partners at Atlas Biomed and our partnership team here.
Belonging to a haplogroup provides information about where your ancestors lived, how they moved around the planet and where your closest relatives are now.
Types of risk factors: – external (e.g., environment, economic situation, profession) – characteristics of the human body (e.g., elevated blood cholesterol, arterial hypertension, hereditary predisposition) – lifestyle (smoking, diet, exercise)
Disease risk is the sum of all risk factors, which is why Atlas users are invited to fill in the Health and Lifestyle Survey to get the most accurate assessment of their individual risk.
Such diseases are the result of interaction between multiple genetic and external factors that lead to a family predisposition to the disease, without a clear Mendelian inheritance pattern (i.e., classical genetic).
For example, if two DNA sequences - AAGCCTA and AAGCTTA - differ by a single nucleotide, then there are two alleles: C and T. Such point mutations are considered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
DNA contains information on the structure of various types of RNA and proteins. It is made up of four nucleotides, known as adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine or A, G, T, C for short. They are connected together in a specific pattern: adenine binds only to thymine and guanine only to cytosine. These nucleotides encode information about every protein in the body, thus determining the phenotype of a person (i.e., the set of observable characteristics).
It is a rolling subscription, so you will receive a test kit every 3 months. You can choose to terminate it whenever you like. To cancel the subscription, just contact us via email firstname.lastname@example.org.
If your first order contains both the OMBucha® DNA and Microbiome Tests, the delivery is free of charge.
There exists more than 20,000 scientific articles that have been published relating to the gut microbiome and its relationship with various health conditions over the past decade.
Every single month, world over, new research is released in this field. We used these publications to develop an interpretation system that is now featured in our microbiome test.
This research has firmly established that bacteria in the microbiome are not simply ‘good’ or ‘bad’ species. Rather, how microbes participate in health or illness is dependent on their abundance in the overall community and how they relate to one another. The recommendations provided on your personal account have been developed on the basis of microbiome research by doctors and scientists.
16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The genes coding for it are referred to as 16S rRNA gene and are used in reconstructing phylogenies, due to the slow rates of evolution of this region of the gene. Carl Woese and George E. Fox were two of the people who pioneered the use of 16S rRNA in phylogenetics in 1977.
Multiple sequences of the 16S rRNA gene can exist within a single bacterium.
Incorporating testing via the OMBucha® gut microbiome test kit is probably your most cost effective, accessible and accurate method to truly analyse & track your gut competition & health.
We test your DNA and microbiome, using the latest technology from Illumina, a world leader in the field of molecular analysis. Your genetic data is analysed in a certified EU laboratory in the Netherlands, accredited with ISO 15189.
Learn more about our home gut microbiome testing.
Why should I take a microbiome test?The OMBucha® home Microbiome Test analyses the types of bacteria present and their proportion in the overall microbiome. It provides information about the various functions of your gut bacteria, like the extent to which they protect you against certain diseases and inflammation, as well as what vitamins they synthesise. You will also get recommendations to improve and maintain the balance of your microbiome by adding specific foods to your diet.
Benefits of Gut Microbiome Testing:
- Learn how microbes protect you from disease
- Understand how diet affects gut bacteria
- Optimise microbe’s vitamin synthesis
- Dietary fibre breakdown and butyrate synthesis
- Personalised food recommendations
- Probiotics and beneficial bacteria report
What You Will Learn
- Health Your microbiome health score and protection from 5 disease risks
- Nutrition Proportion of probiotics and beneficial bacteria, micronutrient synthesis potential and diversity score
- Foods Weekly personalised food recommendations to improve your microbiome health in 17 areas
- Bacterial composition List of bacteria found in your microbiome (%) and what enterotype you belong to
Learn more about home microbiome testing here.
Consumers are being bombarded with shelves full of 'Kombucha' products in cafes, restaurants and supermarkets ... however, there is a catch!
Firstly, Kombucha is a raw, living, bacteria rich fermented product. This presents a couple of issues - one, is that it is extremely shelf unstable. And two, it is very hard to mass produce authentic real kombucha.
Being fermented and alive, real Kombucha is naturally carbonated (fizzy). Over time it continues to ferment and produces more carbon dioxide, which means it gets fizzier and fizzier - even explosive. Depending on the balance of Bacteria:Yeast in the original Kombucha SCOBY culture, there is an element of alcohol, or, the potential for alcohol. As the product ferments further, the potential for increased alcohol can rise. For mass production, mass distribution on a raw, living, and ever-changing product introduces a real nightmare for regulation, control and consistency.
In regards the second point - to manufacture real, authentic kombucha is actually very difficult to achieve on a large commercial scale. We brew in small batches, using oak barrels with a traditional method. A method where the outcome is to produce a culture rich, healthy brew to support your gut microbiome. This is never going to happen with a commercial manufacturer that is focussing on producing and distributing large volumes of tasty drinks to turn large profits.
To us, Kombucha is merely a tool (one of many) to feed your gut microbiome with enriching precursors and acids allowing you to take control and optimise your personal wellbeing and health.
Our goal is to produce a vehicle, a system and a method that helps you achieve optimised health & vitality. We're in the market of producing an active product, alongside support and advice, that allows you to feel better and live a better life through self-prescribed, natural, functional foods.
We noticed some time back, that most Kombucha brands actually have very little understanding about gut health, or the microbiome. There's nothing wrong with producing a tasty, flavoured, fizzy drink to compete in the soda/flavoured drinks market ... it just isn't what we started OMBucha® to achieve. We've no interest in producing an alternative to your favourite cola or sugar loaded energy drink. We started our mission to raise the awareness of how the human gut influences mental, physical and emotional well being. We wanted to produce a product that actually has a real world impact on your microbes and thus your wellness.
The world of your personal gut bacteria, and how your microbiome communicates and interacts with your brain and body is truly fascinating. Nowadays, we know that over 1,000 different types of microbes are active in the human intestines. Bacteria and microbes co-exist on, in and within our body and have a massive influence over our health, wellness, mood and both physical & emotional state. Your gut is the foundational cornerstone of long term health - with the root of many illnesses and diseases actually starting in the gut.
In order to mass produce true authentic Kombucha, you're banging your head against a brick wall. You're trying to achieve something that is actually not possible. Every Kombucha brand knows this. And behind the scenes, commercial kombucha brands are using techniques to overcome these challenges - creating mass produced, shelf stable, carbonated drinks in order to win over your taste buds and draw you in with branding/marketing techniques that appeal to your sense of taste.
Let us tell you something ... outside of OMBucha®, we have and continue to work in the sports nutrition, nutrition and online marketing industries. OMBucha® is a hobby - a passion. Our knowledge from working with some of the largest nutritional food companies in the world has given us insights to the good, the bad and the ugly of the commercial marketing world, which includes that of the growing commercial sector for Kombucha.
Sure, we can adulterate our product and flavour it. Sure we can put it in a can. Sure we can make it more shelf stable. Sure we can add CBD, and botanicals and all kinds of cool stuff - none of it is a problem. HOWEVER, be aware, that when you introduce any of these adulterants and mass production factors - you are consistently moving away from optimal, unadulterated, effective nutrition.
Since we started our Kombucha with a mission to improve health, vitality and wellness we have zero intention of moving away from that goal. From our own understanding of nutrition, and gut health as it stands today, we have no desire to adulterate our Kombucha, which is a tool that we use ourselves to improve our gut microbiome and thus improve our health.
"Let Food Be They Medicine, and Medicine Be They Food" - you've heard it before and we'll post it over and over again, because we strongly believe in this from the core of our being.
For us here at OMBucha® we produce what we believe is a raw, living, active culture in an activated food that has a real world impact on your health & wellbeing. To introduce factors that take us away from the purest form of natural medicine by adding in tactics, techniques and flavours in order to mass produce a commercial profit spinning product takes us further and further away from our values and beliefs.
In that regard, although we appreciate and enjoy the ever growing list of flavoured, fizzy drinks masquerading as 'Kombucha' on the market for what they stand for in a commercial aspect, it's simply not something we have any interest in involving ourselves in. You can read more about how real Kombucha can positively impact your gut microbiome here.
The microbiome is a community of bacteria that live in the gut. Human gastrointestinal microbiota, also known as gut flora or gut microbiota, are the microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans. Nowadays, we know that over 1,000 different types of microbes are active in the human intestines. Thanks to major advances in science & technology, it is now possible to perform accurate analyses of the microbiome using 16S rRNA sequencing to identify these bacteria based on their DNA. In fact, the genes in the human microbiome outnumber the genes in the human body 100 to 1.
Crudely put, the human is basically a tube from mouth to colon, surrounded by a big meat sack of water and protein made up of DNA. Your lifestyle and what you feed your living body (your inputs) create outputs through RNA and DNA gene expression. Everything you expose your system to, the food you eat, the environment you live in, the pharmaceuticals you consume, are all incoming code, that is translated and what is output is quite literally who you are, and how you feel.
Gut bacteria are part of a big group of microbes that perform important jobs for the human body like digesting food and breaking down dietary fibre, synthesising vitamins and essential chemical compounds as well as protecting the body from inflammation. Some bacteria may participate in the development of certain illnesses but, for most species, only if they are present in abnormal amounts. When the microbiome is balanced, it is able to prevent the intrusion and overgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria, thus contributing to overall health.
To experience optimal health and wellness, your focus has to be on optimising the delicate balance of positive microbiota that make up who you are, and how you feel/experience the world around you.
SUBSCRIBE & SAVE (5% OFF STANDARD PRICES)Get 5% off your subscriptions for as long as you stay subscribed.
WHAT IS SUBSCRIBE & SAVE
- A completely flexible subscription to suit you. No contract – cancel at any time.
- You can now buy a subscription of OMBucha® Kombucha and save both time and money.
- You choose how often you want a delivery, from weekly, bi-monthly or monthly.
- Take the hassle out of reordering and let us do the hard work – everything is set on autopilot!
- Full support: we are always at the end of the email/phone/live chat.
*Kombucha will continue to mature and will eventually become Kombucha vinegar which has a multitude of uses of its own: use it in salad dressings, skin moisturiser, as a hair tonic, or as a marinade.
Kombucha contains trace amounts of alcohol, a natural byproduct of the fermentation process that preserves the brew and protects it from harmful microorganisms. The trace amounts of alcohol are similar to what you’d find in unpasteurized fruit juice. Kombucha is considered halal because it is non-inebriating and the ethanol serves as a preservative.
There are, however, types of kombucha with higher amounts of alcohol which are deemed alcoholic beverages for consumption by an adult 21+ consumer including hybrid drinks like kombucha beer.
The majority of kombucha sold on the market, like OMBucha® is raw, and therefore biologically active. The fermentation process continues as long as bacteria and yeast have sugars to feed on. Yeast is temperature sensitive, and cold temperatures keep them less active.
Trace amounts of ethanol are naturally produced by the fermentation process. Keeping kombucha cold is an important means to ensure the quality remains consistent and compliant.
If exposed to warm or hot temperatures, the fermentation continues rapidly and the carbon dioxide will build up quickly. The results could be anywhere from an excess carbonation upon opening to an exploding or broken bottle. It is important to keep commercial kombucha refrigerated at all times to prevent any mishaps. Good thing it is so delicious, leaving it in the bottle almost never happens!
Over time the sugar diminishes as the tea conditions as the yeast continue to digest the sugar. In OMBucha the sugar will settle at around 4g/100ml when fully conditioned. With kombucha, sugar is a necessary evil but the good components vastly outweigh the relatively small amount of sugar in a glass and are doing you far more good than harm.
Sugar is the critical food that is utilised in the fermentation process to produce all the delicious health promoting vital elements of a good kombucha, which you can learn more about here - sugar a necessary evil...
- healthy liver function
- removing toxins
- destroying free radicals
- anti-microbial/anti-fungal properties
A kombucha SCOBY’s food source is sweetened black tea. When you place a SCOBY into the prepared tea, it begins to consume the sugars and form another SCOBY, often referred to as a baby.
The other symbiotic relationship, therefore, exists between the SCOBY and the sweet tea. The SCOBY needs the tea to survive and kombucha cannot be made without the SCOBY. This process can take as little as a week, if it is warmer, and up to a month in cooler temperatures.
The by-products of this process are organic acids, a multiplication of the bacteria and yeasts within the sweetened tea, carbon dioxide (which is how kombucha becomes carbonated), a trace of alcohol, and B vitamins. Exactly what we need for a healthy balanced gut.
Fermentation and fermenting tea is an ancient process, you can learn more about kombucha fermented tea and why ferment tea here.
Health Benefits of drinking KombuchaRead the full article here on why craft OMBucha® is great for your gut and health.
Improves Digestion Kombucha promotes healthy digestion. Attributing to the process of fermentation with a live colony of bacteria and yeast, it works as a probiotic by helping in sustaining the gut health and provides relief from various abdominal disorders including chronic constipation and diarrhea symptoms. The digestive enzymes present in it enhance the effects of glucuronic acid and aid in the breakdown of proteins and saccharides thereby, making the digestive system more efficient.
Kombucha possesses antibiotic properties i.e. bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic which works against a range of pathogens and is used for therapeutic purposes in human as well as veterinary treatments.
Detoxifies the Body Kombucha may have a remarkable ability to detoxify the body. It contains a powerful detoxifier glucuronic acid which binds the toxins by entering the liver and eliminates them out of the body via kidneys.
Antioxidant Agent Kombucha contains profuse amounts of organic acids like glucuronic acid and powerful antioxidants which may help in shielding the body from oxidative damage. The antioxidants present in it look out for the oxygen free radicals and neutralize their effects thereby, repairing and protecting the body from diseases and inflammations.
Liver Support Another suggested healing action purported by kombucha is its hepatic-protective effects. A research study conducted on kombucha has shown that its tea helps in restoring the levels of glutathione and is remarkably effectual in reducing the induced hepatotoxicity. A comparative study conducted on black tea, kombucha tea, and enzyme-processed black tea has proven the efficacy and superiority of kombucha tea in providing hepatic protection against the toxicity attributing to its antioxidant power as compared to the latter.
Possible Anti-microbial Effects Kombucha tea has anti-microbial properties which may prove effective against a variety of pathogens. An investigative research has revealed that apart from acetic acid, it contains other anti-microbial components which even at neutral values of pH provide protection against a range of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureaus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia Coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogens, and Helicobacter pylori
The specific bacteria and yeast strains in the kombucha are what make it act the way it does, and what produces the fizz and flavor of kombucha. Not all kombucha cultures will contain the exact same strains, but these are some that have been recorded in studies:
Acetobacter  is an aerobic (requiring oxygen) bacteria strain that produces acetic acid and gluconic acid. It is always found in kombucha. Acetobacter strains also build the scoby mushroom. Acetobacter xylinoides and acetobacter ketogenum are two strains that you might find in kombucha.
Saccharomyces  includes a number of yeast strains that produce alcohol and are the most common types of yeast found in kombucha. They can be aerobic or anaerobic (requires an oxygen-free environment). They include Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Saccharomycodes apiculatus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zygosaccharomyes, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Brettanomyces  is another type of yeast strain, either aerobic or anaerobic, that are commonly found in kombucha and produce alcohol or acetic acid.
Lactobacillus : A type of aerobic bacteria that is sometimes, but not always, found in kombucha. It produces lactic acid and slime.
Pediococcus : These anaerobic bacteria produce lactic acid and slime. They are sometimes, but not always, found in kombucha.
Gluconacetobacter kombuchae  is an anaerobic bacteria that is unique to kombucha. It feeds on nitrogen that is found in tea and produces acetic acid and gluconic acid, as well as building the scoby.
Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis  is a yeast strain that is unique to kombucha. It produces alcohol and carbonation as well as contributing to the mushroom body.
Glucuronic acid The body's most important detoxifier. When toxins enter the liver this acid binds them to it and flushes them out through the kidneys. Once bound by glucuronic acid toxins cannot escape. A product of the oxidation process of glucose, glucuronic acid is one of the more significant constituents of Kombucha. As a detoxifying agent it's one of the few agents that can cope with pollution from the products of the petroleum industry, including all the plastics, herbicides, pesticides and resins. It kidnaps the phenols in the liver, which are then eliminated easily by the kidneys. Kombucha can be very helpful for allergy sufferers. Another by-product of glucuronic acid are the glucosamines, the structures associated with cartilage, collagen and the fluids which lubricate the joints. It is this function that makes Kombucha so effective against arthritis.
Glucuronolactone, glucuronic acid is involved in the metabolism of detoxification in the liver whose glucuronyl rest of the body is linked to a group of foreign compounds or any of the metabolites in the body so that they become soluble in water and are excreted in the urine. Glucuronic acid should be distinguished from gluconic acid because it is linear and the gluconic acid is formed by oxidation of the different carbon glucose atom.
Lactic Acid Essential for the digestive system. Assist blood circulation, helps prevent bowel decay and constipation. Aids in balancing acids and alkaline in the body and believed to help in the prevention of cancer by helping to regulate blood pH levels.
Acetic Acid A powerful preservative and it inhibits harmful bacteria.
Usnic Acid A natural antibiotic that can be effective against many viruses.
Oxalic Acid An effective preservative and encourages the intercellular production of energy.
Malic Acid Helps detoxify the liver.
Gluconic Acid Produced by the bacteria, it can break down to caprylic acid is of great benefit to sufferers of candidiasis and other yeast infections such as thrush.
Butyric acid Produced by the yeast, protects human cellular membranes and combined with Gluconic acid strengthens the walls of the gut to combat yeast infections like candida.
Kombucha also contains a variety of other nutrients, particularly various acids and esters that give the drink its characteristic tang and fizz. Included in these components is gluconic acid, which is the primary difference between the makeup of kombucha and the makeup of apple cider vinegar.
Flavonoids Flavonoids are part of a large class of chemicals called polyphenols that occur naturally in plants. Flavonoids, which are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables as well as in tea and red wine, are thought to boost health in part by combating oxidation. That's why they're called antioxidants. Antioxidants help the body's cells resist damage by free radicals. Tea has one of the highest total flavonoid contents of all plants at 15% of the leaf by dry weight and is the major source of flavonoids in the UK diet, providing approximately 80% of dietary flavonoids for the population as a whole. So don't stop drinking your tea!
The actual bacteria, sugar, and acid content of kombucha depend on many factors, including the initial culture, the type of tea used, the type of sugar used, the strength of the tea, the type of water, the brewing time, the culturing temperature, and more. Due to the nature of kombucha, it is not possible to state an exact microbial composition for Kombucha. 
While different SCOBYs may vary in their exact makeup, what is common to all kombuchas is gluconic acid, acetic acid, and fructose. 
1. Ai Leng Teoha,, Gillian Heard, Julian Cox.(2044). Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 95(2), 119-126. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.12.020
2. Jayabalan, R., Malini, K., Sathishkumar, M., Swaminathan, K., & Yun, S. E. (2010). Biochemical characteristics of tea fungus produced during kombucha fermentation. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19(3), 843-847.
3. Kurtzman, C. P., Robnett, C. J. and Basehoar-Powers, E. (2001), Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis, a new ascosporogenous yeast from ‘Kombucha tea’. FEMS Yeast Research, 1: 133–138. doi: 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2001.tb00024.x
This is the reason the commercial kombucha’s are pasteurised, negating the many health benefits one can derive from the probiotic content in the drink (the heat during pasteurisation literally kills the health promoting probiotics found in the kombucha). Add to that, force carbonation, artificial preservatives, added sugar, flavours & sweeteners and you’ll find that the mass-produced, mainstream, high-street kombucha products are actually far removed from the health promoting, nourishing, vitality giving goodness delivered by a true home-brewed craft kombucha like OMBucha®
What strains of bacteria & yeasts are present in Kombucha?The yeasts and bacteria commonly identified as Acetobacter xylinum (bacteria) and Saccharomyces (yeast) have been considered the key players in Kombucha Mushroom Tea ferments. However, as research into kombucha continues and as recently as Feb 2007 specific strains of both bacteria and yeasts have been identified. Similarly to milk‐derived kefir, the exact microbial composition of kombucha cannot be given because it varies. It depends on the source of the inoculum for the tea fermentation.
All kombucha cultures should contain the bacteria species: Acetobacter or Gluconobacter, these bacteria are responsible for producing Gluconic and Acetic acid which make Kombucha uniquely kombucha.
A typical Kombucha ferment may included the following strains (not always):
- Bacterium gluconicum
- Bacterium xylinum
- Acetobacter xylinum
- Acetobacter xylinoides
- Acetobacter Ketogenum
- Saccharomycodes ludwigii
- Saccharomycodes apiculatus
- Schizosaccharomyces pombe
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Acids and others:
- Acetic acid
- Acetoacetic acid
- Benzoic acid
- propenyl ester
- Butanoic acid
- Citric acid
- Decanoic acid
- Ethyl Acetate
- d-Gluconic acid
- Hexanoic acid
- Itaconic acid
- 2-Keto-gluconic acid
- 5-Keto-gluconic acid
- 2-Keto-3-deoxy-gluconic Lactic acid
- Nicotinic acid
- Pantothenic acid
- Phenethyl Alcohol
- Phenol, 4-ethyl
- 6-Phospho gluconate
- Propionic acid
- Octanoic acid
- Oxalic acid
- d-Saccharic acid
- (Glucaric acid)
- Succinic acid
- Thiamin - plus 40 other acid esters in trace amount.