What strains of bacteria & yeasts are present in Kombucha?

What strains of bacteria & yeasts are present in Kombucha?

The yeasts and bacteria commonly identified as Acetobacter xylinum (bacteria) and Saccharomyces (yeast) have been considered the key players in Kombucha Mushroom Tea ferments. However, as research into kombucha continues and as recently as Feb 2007 specific strains of both bacteria and yeasts have been identified. Similarly to milk‐derived kefir, the exact microbial composition of kombucha cannot be given because it varies. It depends on the source of the inoculum for the tea fermentation.

All kombucha cultures should contain the bacteria species: Acetobacter or Gluconobacter, these bacteria are responsible for producing Gluconic and Acetic acid which make Kombucha uniquely kombucha.

A typical Kombucha ferment may included the following strains (not always):

Bacteria Strains:

  • Bacterium gluconicum
  • Bacterium xylinum
  • Acetobacter xylinum
  • Acetobacter xylinoides
  • Acetobacter Ketogenum

Yeast Strains:

  • Saccharomycodes ludwigii
  • Saccharomycodes apiculatus
  • Schizosaccharomyces pombe
  • Zygosaccharomyes
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Acids and others:

  • Acetic acid
  • Acetoacetic acid
  • Benzoic acid
  • propenyl ester
  • Benzonitrile
  • Butanoic acid
  • Caffeine
  • Citric acid
  • Cyanocobalamin
  • Decanoic acid
  • Ethyl Acetate
  • Fructose
  • d-Gluconic acid
  • Glucose
  • Hexanoic acid
  • Itaconic acid
  • 2-Keto-gluconic acid
  • 5-Keto-gluconic acid
  • 2-Keto-3-deoxy-gluconic Lactic acid
  • Niacinamide
  • Nicotinic acid
  • Pantothenic acid
  • Phenethyl Alcohol
  • Phenol, 4-ethyl
  • 6-Phospho gluconate
  • Propionic acid
  • Octanoic acid
  • Oxalic acid
  • Riboflavin
  • d-Saccharic acid
  • (Glucaric acid)
  • Succinic acid
  • Thiamin
    – plus 40 other acid esters in trace amount.

Chemical composition of kombucha tea

Chemical analysis of kombucha showed the presence of various organic acids, such as acetic, gluconic, glucuronic, citric, L‐lactic, malic, tartaric, malonic, oxalic, succinic, pyruvic, usnic; also sugars, such as sucrose, glucose, and fructose; the vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12, and C; 14 amino acids, biogenic amines, purines, pigments, lipids, proteins, some hydrolytic enzymes, ethanol, antibiotically active matter, carbon dioxide, phenol, as well as some tea polyphenols, minerals, anions, DSL, as well as insufficiently known products of yeast and bacterial metabolites.

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