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Organic Premium Live Milk Kefir Grains
Organic Milk Kefir Grains vacuum sealed supplied for producing beneficial probiotic milk Kefir at home.
OMBucha Organic Milk Kefir Grains are high quality probiotic milk kefir grains available in sterile sealed pouches developed to get your own Kefir culture thriving and producing your own Kefir beverage at home. These are super healthy Kefir grains and contain high Kefiran (Kefiran is the clear or pale yellow polysaccharide gel exuded by dairy kefir or water kefir grains) producing microbes which are responsible for the thick creamy texture of superior quality Kefir.
Produce healthy probiotic Kefir from home!
We obtain superior quality culture of our organic Kefir grains using similar techniques we use to produce our quality Kombucha and mushroom cultures. These grains are currently producing Kefir and are fed organic whole milk every 48 hours – ensuring that the healthy bacteria is very active and very potent. As they are currently fermenting, they will start producing Kefir as soon as they are introduced to milk.
- FREE detailed instructions & FAQ guide as a hard copy included in the package, alongside digital copy.
- PLUS you get email customer support for LIFE – feel free to email us with ANY questions at all about your Kefir at any time. We are here to help!
NOTE: Due to preparation of this live culture, there may be a 5 – 10 days delay prior to shipping.
What Is Milk Kefir (Tibetan Mushroom)
Fermented Live Kefir – Proven to actively support your digestion, skin & immune system
Kefir (also known as Tibetan Mushroom) and pronounced as Ke-Feer is a living culture, a complex symbiosis of microflora that naturally form grains or cauliflower-like structures (sometimes called plants) in the milk. Similar to Kombucha, Kefir or Kefir Yogurt, is a fermented milk drink similar to a thin yogurt that is made from Kefir grains, a specific type of mesophilic symbiotic culture (like a SCOBY). So far, more than 50 strains of bacteria and yeasts have been found in milk Kefir worldwide.
Traditional Kefir was made in goatskin bags that were hung near a doorway; the bags would be knocked by anyone passing through to keep the milk and kefir grains well mixed. Kefir spread from the former Soviet Union to the rest of Europe, Japan, the United States by the early 21st century. It has become known in Latin America as búlgaros, or “Bulgarian drink”. European Kefir is known to typically contains over 20 different gut-beneficial bacterial strains. As the culture ferments the milk, these structures grow, creating new grains in the process. Real Kefir from live culture is an endlessly self-propagating process.
- All live cultures are ready to to ferment as soon as they arrive
- All cultures are picked and packed to order daily
- All packaging is food grade and heat sealed
- Full paper instructions are provided with every Kefir culture (not just online) and we also provide access to our online instructions
- Full customer support – We are here to help and for as long as you need us. When you buy one of our cultures one of our Culture experts is available to via email or telephone or in person to help you with your Kefir process. You can come back to us at any point for help. We will do everything we can to help you happily make wonderful gut-beneficial milk Kefir.
Brewing Home Made Kefir
Traditional Kefir is fermented at ambient room temperatures, generally overnight. Fermentation of the lactose yields a sour, carbonated, slightly alcoholic beverage*, with a consistency and taste similar to drinkable yogurt.
Detailed instructions can be obtained from our digital Kefir brewing guide. However, brewing Kefir is relatively simple and can be summarised as a simple process. Once received, place the contents of bag contained premium organic OMBucha Kefir grains into a suitable container and pour over 0.5 to 1 pint of whole milk. Cover from dust and pests and leave at ambient room temperature for 24-48 hours or until fermented to taste. Strain the contents to separate out the Kefir grains and replace with another 0.5 to 1 pint of whole milk to keep the culture alive and fermenting. As the culture grows, which it will do very rapidly, the volume of milk can be increased accordingly, thus increasing your Kefir production.
When the Kefir grains are purchased on their own, as the case here, then we will send you a copy of the instructions via email and within your package, and if you have any questions then you can email us using our contact us page.
You will receive a sterile heat sealed sachet containing one measurement of grains in liquid (varying in size based on your selection). This starter liquid is provided to keep the grains alive and healthy on their journey to you. Approximately one teaspoon (5g) of grains will brew around 250ml Kefir yogurt every 24-48 hours, and you can brew much more once they grow. Kefir is made by adding kefir grains to milk typically at a proportion of 2-5% grains-to-milk.
Once received all live Kefir grains require settling as they adjust to their new environment (Kefir grains can be temperature sensitive). This process can take between 3-5 brews. Once settled they will make delicious Kefir every single day. The grains do grow VERY quickly so you can quickly increase the volume you brew as desired, as your grains naturally grow and replicate themselves. Each small 5g portion of potent Kefir grains pack a powerful punch and having too many grains when you start brewing is not helpful. You will receive access to our online resources including instructions, videos and our blog with helpful hints and tips and full email support. We do not just send you the grains and leave you to get on with it, we are here to help you begin your home-brewing Kefir journey.
The fermented Kefir liquid (yogurt) may be drunk, used in recipes, or kept aside in a sealed container for additional time to undergo a secondary fermentation. Because of its acidity the beverage should not be stored in reactive metal containers such as aluminium, copper, or zinc, as these may leach into it over time. The shelf life, unrefrigerated, is up to thirty (30) days.
As it contains Lactobacillus bacteria, kefir can be used to make a sourdough bread. It is also useful as a buttermilk substitute in baking.
Our grains are guaranteed to work so if you have any problems or issues just get in touch email@example.com (pop the grains in some milk in the fridge covered in some cling film in the mean time, please do not throw them away).
How Do Kefir Grains Brew Kefir Yogurt – The Science Behind Kefir
The Kefir grains initiating the fermentation consist of a symbiotic culture of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts embedded in a matrix of proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides – just like a Kombucha SCOBY. The SCOBY matrix is formed by microbial activity and resemble small cauliflower grains, with colour ranging from white to creamy yellow. This almost resembles what you would consider like cottage cheese. A complex and highly variable community of bacteria can be found in these grains, and includes lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, and yeasts. While some microbes predominate, Lactobacillus species are always present. The microbe flora can vary between batches of Kefir due to factors such as the Kefir grains rising out of the milk while fermenting or curds forming around the grains, as well as temperature.
During fermentation, changes in the composition of ingredients occur. Lactose, the sugar present in milk, is broken down mostly to lactic acid (25%) by the lactic acid bacteria, which results in acidification of the product. Propionibacteria further break down some of the lactic acid into propionic acid (these bacteria also carry out the same fermentation in Swiss cheese). Other substances that contribute to the flavour of kefir are pyruvic acid, acetic acid, diacetyl and acetoin (both of which contribute a “buttery” flavour), citric acid, acetaldehyde, and amino acids resulting from protein breakdown.
Low lactose content
The slow-acting yeasts, late in the fermentation process, break lactose down into ethanol and carbon dioxide. As a result of the fermentation, very little lactose remains in kefir. People with lactose intolerance are usually able to tolerate kefir, provided the number of live bacteria present in this beverage consumed is high enough (i.e., fermentation has proceeded for adequate time). It has also been shown that fermented milk products have a slower transit time than milk, which may further improve lactose digestion.
Health Benefits of Kefir
The western world’s view on bacterial cultures as beneficial medicinal remedies has taken considerable time due to the lack of correct education on good and bad bacteria. Here at OMBucha, we are obsessed by bacteria and the many health benefits of positive good bacteria. Over the last few decades there has been much positive publicity for probiotic yogurts and probiotic drinks, such as Kombucha – that so many of us now consume on a daily basis. As in much the same way, Kefir grains offer a highly prosperous and health rich boost to your immune system.
Used to create a fermented milk drink not unlike many of the probiotic bottles found in your supermarket, but completely natural, and packed with more beneficial elements, Kefir is over laden with good bacteria, all of which are natural and organic. Here at OMBucha we have spent a great deal of time and effort sourcing excellent Kefir culture supplies to pass onto you. Whether as use in either water Kefir or milk Kefir, you can discover the many health benefits today for yourself from home.
Kefir can help to enhance bowel function. When bowel bacteria are absent, the function of peristalsis is impaired, and the amount of time it takes for food to pass completely through the system is much increased, Kefir can help rectify this.
*Alcohol/ethanol content of Kefir
Kefir contains tiny amounts of ethanol, which is detectable in the blood of human consumers. The level of ethanol in kefir can vary by production method. A 2016 study of kefir sold in Germany showed an ethanol level of only 0.02 g per litre, which was attributed to fermentation under controlled conditions allowing the growth of Lactobacteria only, but excluding the growth of other microorganisms that form much higher amounts of ethanol. A 2008 study of German commercial kefir found levels of 0.002-0.005% of ethanol. Another study found levels of ethanol of 2.10%, 1.46% and 1.40% in cow, goat and sheep kefir, respectively. Kefir produced by small-scale dairies in Russia early in the 20th century had 1-2% ethanol. Modern processes, which use shorter fermentation times, result in much lower ethanol concentrations of 0.2–0.3%.
Brew 250ml, Brew 500ml, Brew 750ml, Brew 1000ml
Learn more about our partners at Atlas Biomed and our partnership team here.
Belonging to a haplogroup provides information about where your ancestors lived, how they moved around the planet and where your closest relatives are now.
Types of risk factors: – external (e.g., environment, economic situation, profession) – characteristics of the human body (e.g., elevated blood cholesterol, arterial hypertension, hereditary predisposition) – lifestyle (smoking, diet, exercise)
Disease risk is the sum of all risk factors, which is why Atlas users are invited to fill in the Health and Lifestyle Survey to get the most accurate assessment of their individual risk.
Such diseases are the result of interaction between multiple genetic and external factors that lead to a family predisposition to the disease, without a clear Mendelian inheritance pattern (i.e., classical genetic).
For example, if two DNA sequences - AAGCCTA and AAGCTTA - differ by a single nucleotide, then there are two alleles: C and T. Such point mutations are considered single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).
DNA contains information on the structure of various types of RNA and proteins. It is made up of four nucleotides, known as adenine, guanine, thymine and cytosine or A, G, T, C for short. They are connected together in a specific pattern: adenine binds only to thymine and guanine only to cytosine. These nucleotides encode information about every protein in the body, thus determining the phenotype of a person (i.e., the set of observable characteristics).
It is a rolling subscription, so you will receive a test kit every 3 months. You can choose to terminate it whenever you like. To cancel the subscription, just contact us via email firstname.lastname@example.org.
If your first order contains both the OMBucha® DNA and Microbiome Tests, the delivery is free of charge.
There exists more than 20,000 scientific articles that have been published relating to the gut microbiome and its relationship with various health conditions over the past decade.
Every single month, world over, new research is released in this field. We used these publications to develop an interpretation system that is now featured in our microbiome test.
This research has firmly established that bacteria in the microbiome are not simply ‘good’ or ‘bad’ species. Rather, how microbes participate in health or illness is dependent on their abundance in the overall community and how they relate to one another. The recommendations provided on your personal account have been developed on the basis of microbiome research by doctors and scientists.
16S ribosomal RNA (or 16S rRNA) is the component of the 30S small subunit of a prokaryotic ribosome that binds to the Shine-Dalgarno sequence. The genes coding for it are referred to as 16S rRNA gene and are used in reconstructing phylogenies, due to the slow rates of evolution of this region of the gene. Carl Woese and George E. Fox were two of the people who pioneered the use of 16S rRNA in phylogenetics in 1977.
Multiple sequences of the 16S rRNA gene can exist within a single bacterium.
Incorporating testing via the OMBucha® gut microbiome test kit is probably your most cost effective, accessible and accurate method to truly analyse & track your gut competition & health.
We test your DNA and microbiome, using the latest technology from Illumina, a world leader in the field of molecular analysis. Your genetic data is analysed in a certified EU laboratory in the Netherlands, accredited with ISO 15189.
Learn more about our home gut microbiome testing.
Why should I take a microbiome test?The OMBucha® home Microbiome Test analyses the types of bacteria present and their proportion in the overall microbiome. It provides information about the various functions of your gut bacteria, like the extent to which they protect you against certain diseases and inflammation, as well as what vitamins they synthesise. You will also get recommendations to improve and maintain the balance of your microbiome by adding specific foods to your diet.
Benefits of Gut Microbiome Testing:
- Learn how microbes protect you from disease
- Understand how diet affects gut bacteria
- Optimise microbe’s vitamin synthesis
- Dietary fibre breakdown and butyrate synthesis
- Personalised food recommendations
- Probiotics and beneficial bacteria report
What You Will Learn
- Health Your microbiome health score and protection from 5 disease risks
- Nutrition Proportion of probiotics and beneficial bacteria, micronutrient synthesis potential and diversity score
- Foods Weekly personalised food recommendations to improve your microbiome health in 17 areas
- Bacterial composition List of bacteria found in your microbiome (%) and what enterotype you belong to
Learn more about home microbiome testing here.
SUBSCRIBE & SAVE (5% OFF STANDARD PRICES)Get 5% off your subscriptions for as long as you stay subscribed.
WHAT IS SUBSCRIBE & SAVE
- A completely flexible subscription to suit you. No contract – cancel at any time.
- You can now buy a subscription of OMBucha® Kombucha and save both time and money.
- You choose how often you want a delivery, from weekly, bi-monthly or monthly.
- Take the hassle out of reordering and let us do the hard work – everything is set on autopilot!
- Full support: we are always at the end of the email/phone/live chat.
*Kombucha will continue to mature and will eventually become Kombucha vinegar which has a multitude of uses of its own: use it in salad dressings, skin moisturiser, as a hair tonic, or as a marinade.
The majority of kombucha sold on the market, like OMBucha® is raw, and therefore biologically active. The fermentation process continues as long as bacteria and yeast have sugars to feed on. Yeast is temperature sensitive, and cold temperatures keep them less active.
Trace amounts of ethanol are naturally produced by the fermentation process. Keeping kombucha cold is an important means to ensure the quality remains consistent and compliant.
If exposed to warm or hot temperatures, the fermentation continues rapidly and the carbon dioxide will build up quickly. The results could be anywhere from an excess carbonation upon opening to an exploding or broken bottle. It is important to keep commercial kombucha refrigerated at all times to prevent any mishaps. Good thing it is so delicious, leaving it in the bottle almost never happens!
- healthy liver function
- removing toxins
- destroying free radicals
- anti-microbial/anti-fungal properties
Health Benefits of drinking KombuchaRead the full article here on why craft OMBucha® is great for your gut and health. In the United Kingdom, we're not allowed to make any claims about Probiotics - as can be seen here: Article 13.1 2009;7(9):1247 from Great Britain nutrition and health claims (NHC) register - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk). So you won't find any information or claims related to Probiotics in relation to any of our products in the UK. Please do not ask us probiotic or gut health related questions, rather, please do your own research from Google and come to your own conclusions and of course, always discuss health matters with a fully qualified and highly trusted (hopefully pillar of health) GP at all times! May Improve Digestion As suggested by many enthusiasts, empirical data proposes that Kombucha tea potentially promotes healthy digestion. Many Kombucha lovers are attributing to the process of fermentation with a live colony of bacteria and yeast, that the beneficial application of fermented tea, may help sustain the gut health and provides relief from various abdominal disorders including chronic constipation and diarrhoea symptoms. The digestive enzymes present in it enhance the effects of glucuronic acid and aid in the breakdown of proteins and saccharides thereby, potentially assisting normal regulation of the digestive system. Many enthusiasts believe Kombucha possesses antibiotic properties i.e. bactericidal and bacteriostatic which works against a range of pathogens and is used for therapeutic purposes in human as well as veterinary treatments - though this has not been factually assessed in the UK, and variation in ones Kombucha brewing is derived from the source of the SCOBY. Could Detoxify the Body Kombucha may have a remarkable reputation for the ability to detoxify the body according to many online sources. Some proponents of Kombucha attribute this potential to a powerful detoxifier glucuronic acid that may be present in some Kombucha brews, which theoretically binds some toxins from the liver and then assisting eliminating them out of the body via kidneys, from what we have researched. Possible Antioxidant Agent Kombucha contains profuse amounts of organic acids like glucuronic acid, of which, some have been noted globally, though not in the UK, to possibly work as powerful antioxidants which may help in shielding the body from oxidative damage. The possibility of antioxidants present in some Kombucha teas, could look out for the oxygen free radicals and neutralize their effects thereby, some enthusiasts speculate that this might be helping repairing and protecting the body from diseases and inflammations. Maybe Even Liver Support Another suggested action purported by kombucha lovers, is its possible hepatic-protective effects. A research study conducted on kombucha tea has shown that its tea helps in restoring the levels of glutathione and some specialists outside of the UK have speculated that this may represent a remarkably effectual way in reducing possible hepatotoxicity. A comparative study conducted on black tea, kombucha tea, and enzyme-processed black tea has indicated the efficacy and superiority of kombucha tea in possibly providing hepatic protection against toxicity maybe attributing to its antioxidant potential, as compared to the latter. Possible Anti-microbial Effects Kombucha tea has even been suggested by some to possess anti-microbial properties which may prove effective against a variety of pathogens. An investigative research has revealed that apart from acetic acid, it contains other promising anti-microbial components which even at neutral values of pH, may possibly provide protection against a range of microorganisms including Staphylococcus aureaus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Escherichia Coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Listeria monocytogens, and Helicobacter pylori. The specific bacteria and yeast strains in the kombucha are what make it act the way it does, and what produces the fizz and flavour of kombucha. Not all kombucha cultures will contain the exact same strains, but these are some that have been recorded in studies: Acetobacter  is an aerobic (requiring oxygen) bacteria strain that produces acetic acid and gluconic acid. It is always found in kombucha. Acetobacter strains also build the SCOBY mushroom. Acetobacter xylinoides and acetobacter ketogenum are two strains that you might find in kombucha. Saccharomyces  includes a number of yeast strains that produce alcohol and are the most common types of yeast found in kombucha. They can be aerobic or anaerobic (requires an oxygen-free environment). They include Saccharomycodes ludwigii, Saccharomycodes apiculatus, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Zygosaccharomyes, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Brettanomyces  is another type of yeast strain, either aerobic or anaerobic, that are commonly found in kombucha and produce alcohol or acetic acid. Lactobacillus : A type of aerobic bacteria that is sometimes, but not always, found in kombucha. It produces lactic acid and slime. Pediococcus : These anaerobic bacteria produce lactic acid and slime. They are sometimes, but not always, found in kombucha. Gluconacetobacter kombuchae  is an anaerobic bacteria that is unique to kombucha. It feeds on nitrogen that is found in tea and produces acetic acid and gluconic acid, as well as building the SCOBY. Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis  is a yeast strain that is unique to kombucha. It produces alcohol and carbonation as well as contributing to the mushroom body. Glucuronic acid Maybe the body's most important detoxifier. When toxins enter the liver this acid could bind them to it and assist in flushing them out through the kidneys. It has been suggested that once bound by glucuronic acid toxins cannot escape. A product of the oxidation process of glucose, glucuronic acid is one of the more significant constituents of Kombucha. As a promising potential detoxifying agent it might be one of the few agents that can cope with pollution from the products of the petroleum industry, including all the plastics, herbicides, pesticides and resins. It could help kidnap the phenols in the liver, which are then eliminated easily by the kidneys. Reportedly, Kombucha could be very helpful for allergy sufferers. Another by-product of glucuronic acid are the glucosamines, the structures associated with cartilage, collagen and the fluids which lubricate the joints. It is this function that has been suggested might allow Kombucha to be effective against arthritis. Glucuronolactone, glucuronic acid is involved in the metabolism of detoxification in the liver whose glucuronyl rest of the body is linked to a group of foreign compounds or any of the metabolites in the body so that they become soluble in water and are excreted in the urine. Glucuronic acid should be distinguished from gluconic acid because it is linear and the gluconic acid is formed by oxidation of the different carbon glucose atom. Lactic Acid Essential for the digestive system. Assist blood circulation, helps prevent bowel decay and constipation. Aids in balancing acids and alkaline in the body and believed to help in the prevention of cancer by helping to regulate blood pH levels. Acetic Acid A powerful preservative and it inhibits harmful bacteria. Usnic Acid A natural antibiotic that can be effective against many viruses. Oxalic Acid An effective preservative and encourages the intercellular production of energy. Malic Acid Helps detoxify the liver. Gluconic Acid Produced by the bacteria, it can break down to caprylic acid is of great benefit to sufferers of candidiasis and other yeast infections such as thrush. Butyric acid Produced by the yeast, protects human cellular membranes and combined with Gluconic acid strengthens the walls of the gut to combat yeast infections like candida. Kombucha also contains a variety of other nutrients, particularly various acids and esters that give the drink its characteristic tang and fizz. Included in these components is gluconic acid, which is the primary difference between the makeup of kombucha and the makeup of apple cider vinegar. Flavonoids Flavonoids are part of a large class of chemicals called polyphenols that occur naturally in plants. Flavonoids, which are found in a variety of fruits and vegetables as well as in tea and red wine, are thought to maintain health in part by combating oxidation. That's why they're called antioxidants. Antioxidants help the body's cells resist damage by free radicals. Tea has one of the highest total flavonoid contents of all plants at 15% of the leaf by dry weight and is the major source of flavonoids in the UK diet, providing approximately 80% of dietary flavonoids for the population as a whole. So don't stop drinking your tea! The actual bacteria, sugar, and acid content of kombucha depend on many factors, including the initial culture, the type of tea used, the type of sugar used, the strength of the tea, the type of water, the brewing time, the culturing temperature, and more. Due to the nature of kombucha, it is not possible to state an exact microbial composition for Kombucha.  While different SCOBYs may vary in their exact makeup, what is common to all kombuchas is gluconic acid, acetic acid, and fructose. 
SOURCES1. Ai Leng Teoha,, Gillian Heard, Julian Cox.(2044). Yeast ecology of Kombucha fermentation. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 95(2), 119-126. doi:10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2003.12.020 2. Jayabalan, R., Malini, K., Sathishkumar, M., Swaminathan, K., & Yun, S. E. (2010). Biochemical characteristics of tea fungus produced during kombucha fermentation. Food Science and Biotechnology, 19(3), 843-847.
3. Kurtzman, C. P., Robnett, C. J. and Basehoar-Powers, E. (2001), Zygosaccharomyces kombuchaensis, a new ascosporogenous yeast from ‘Kombucha tea’. FEMS Yeast Research, 1: 133–138. doi: 10.1111/j.1567-1364.2001.tb00024.x
What strains of bacteria & yeasts are present in Kombucha?In the United Kingdom, we're not allowed to make any claims about Probiotics - as can be seen here: Article 13.1 2009;7(9):1247 from Great Britain nutrition and health claims (NHC) register - GOV.UK (www.gov.uk). So you won't find any information or claims related to Probiotics in relation to any of our products in the UK. Please do not ask us probiotic or gut health related questions, rather, please do your own research from Google and come to your own conclusions and of course, always discuss health matters with a fully qualified and highly trusted (hopefully pillar of health) GP at all times! The yeasts and bacteria commonly identified as Acetobacter xylinum (bacteria) and Saccharomyces (yeast) have been considered the key players in Kombucha Mushroom Tea ferments. However, as research into kombucha continues and as recently as Feb 2007 specific strains of both bacteria and yeasts have been identified. Similarly to milk‐derived kefir, the exact microbial composition of kombucha cannot be given because it varies. It depends on the source of the inoculum for the tea fermentation. All kombucha cultures should contain the bacteria species: Acetobacter or Gluconobacter, these bacteria are responsible for producing Gluconic and Acetic acid which make Kombucha uniquely kombucha. A typical Kombucha ferment may included the following strains (not always):
- Bacterium gluconicum
- Bacterium xylinum
- Acetobacter xylinum
- Acetobacter xylinoides
- Acetobacter Ketogenum
- Saccharomycodes ludwigii
- Saccharomycodes apiculatus
- Schizosaccharomyces pombe
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Acids and others:
- Acetic acid
- Acetoacetic acid
- Benzoic acid
- propenyl ester
- Butanoic acid
- Citric acid
- Decanoic acid
- Ethyl Acetate
- d-Gluconic acid
- Hexanoic acid
- Itaconic acid
- 2-Keto-gluconic acid
- 5-Keto-gluconic acid
- 2-Keto-3-deoxy-gluconic Lactic acid
- Nicotinic acid
- Pantothenic acid
- Phenethyl Alcohol
- Phenol, 4-ethyl
- 6-Phospho gluconate
- Propionic acid
- Octanoic acid
- Oxalic acid
- d-Saccharic acid
- (Glucaric acid)
- Succinic acid
- Thiamin - plus 40 other acid esters in trace amount.